Sabtu, 6 Mac 2010

GERMAN MEASLES = RUBELLA





Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. The name "rubella" is derived from the Latin, meaning little red. Rubella is also known as German measles because the disease was first described by German physicians in the mid-eighteenth century. This disease is often mild and attacks often pass unnoticed. The disease can last one to three days. Children recover more quickly than adults. Infection of the mother by Rubella virus during pregnancy can be serious; if the mother is infected within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, the child may be born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which entails a range of serious incurable illnesses. Spontaneous abortion occurs in up to 20% of cases.[1]

Rubella is a common childhood infection usually with minimal systemic upset although transient arthropathy may occur in adults. Serious complications are very rare. Apart from the effects of transplacental infection on the developing fetus, rubella is a relatively trivial infection.

Acquired (i.e. not congenital) rubella is transmitted via airborne droplet emission from the upper respiratory tract of active cases. The virus may also be present in the urine, feces and on the skin. There is no carrier state: the reservoir exists entirely in active human cases. The disease has an incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks.[2]

In most people the virus is rapidly eliminated. However, it may persist for some months post partum in infants surviving the CRS. These children are a significant source of infection to other infants and, more importantly, to pregnant female contacts.

The name rubella is sometimes confused with rubeola, an alternative name for measles in English-speaking countries; the diseases are unrelated.[3][4] In some other European languages, rubella and rubeola are synonyms, and rubeola is not an alternative name for measles

Signs and symptoms
After an incubation period of 14–21 days, German measles causes symptoms that are similar to the flu. The primary symptom of rubella virus infection is the appearance of a rash (exanthem) on the face which spreads to the trunk and limbs and usually fades after three days (that is why it is often referred to as three-day measles). The facial rash usually clears as it spreads to other parts of the body. Other symptoms include low grade fever, swollen glands (sub occipital & posterior cervical lymphadenopathy), joint pains, headache and conjunctivitis.[6] The swollen glands or lymph nodes can persist for up to a week and the fever rarely rises above 38 oC (100.4 oF). The rash of German measles is typically pink or light red. The rash causes itching and often lasts for about three days. The rash disappears after a few days with no staining or peeling of the skin. When the rash clears up, the patient may notice that his skin sheds in very small flakes wherever the rash covered it. Forchheimer's sign occurs in 20% of cases, and is characterized by small, red papules on the area of the soft palate.

Rubella can affect anyone of any age and is generally a mild disease, rare in infants or those over the age of 40. The older the person is the more severe the symptoms are likely to be. Up to one-third of older girls or women experience joint pain or arthritic type symptoms with rubella. The virus is contracted through the respiratory tract and has an incubation period of 2 to 3 weeks. During this incubation period, the patient is contagious typically for about one week before he develops a rash and for about one week thereafter.


Rubella - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ada satu gambar dari wiki ni.. nanti tempek




Rubella (German measles)
Written for BabyCenter Malaysia
Approved by the BabyCenter Malaysia Medical Advisory Board

Send to a friend
Printable version
What is rubella?

What can I do if I'm not immune?

What is the risk to my baby if I catch rubella during pregnancy?




What is rubella?


Rubella, or German measles, is an infection which can cause a pinkish-red rash that first appears on the face and later spreads elsewhere on the body. Other symptoms that usually appear before the rash include a mild temperature, conjunctivitis and swollen lymph nodes. The virus runs its course in about three days but up to half of people don't get any symptoms so they won't know that they've had it.

Although rubella is a relatively mild illness, it's very dangerous for a pregnant woman as it can lead to all sorts of problems in her baby. When a baby is affected, it has what is called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which means it could have any of the following conditions:

• cataracts and other eye defects

• deafness

• heart abnormalities

• a smaller head than normal (microcephaly)

• restricted growth during pregnancy

• damage to the brain, liver, lungs and bone marrow

Fortunately in Malaysia, the majority of women in their childbearing years are now immune to the disease, either because they were vaccinated against it as a child or because they have already had the illness. As a result, cases of CRS have fallen dramatically since the early 1980s. It is now very rare.



What can I do if I'm not immune?


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Your immunity to rubella can change over time, so it's a good idea to get your immunity checked before you start trying for a baby, even if you've been immune in the past. You can ask your doctor or practice nurse for a blood test.

If you know that you are not immune to rubella, you should if at all possible, be vaccinated before you become pregnant and then wait one month before trying to conceive. This gives your body enough time to kill off the injected virus so you won't be in danger of passing it on to your baby.

If your lack of immunity has been picked up from a blood test in early pregnancy, you'll have to wait until you've had your baby before you can be vaccinated. This can be done before you are discharged if you have your baby in hospital or at your postnatal six-week check.

If by any chance you were vaccinated in the early weeks of pregnancy before you knew you were pregnant, try not to worry. There have been no reports of CRS developing in babies under these circumstances. Your doctor will recommend that you have an ultrasound at 18 to 20 weeks to have a close look at your baby and hopefully, give you some reassurance.



What is the risk to my baby if I catch rubella during pregnancy?


The chances of German measles affecting your baby depend on the stage of pregnancy you are at when you catch the infection. The risks are highest if you catch rubella before you are 11 weeks pregnant (nine out of 10 babies are affected). By 17 weeks, babies are rarely affected, although deafness can affect babies up to 20 weeks.

So, if you have doubts about your immunity, try to avoid contact with anyone who might have German measles, particularly during the first months of your pregnancy.

Unfortunately, if you do catch the disease, there's nothing that can be done to protect your baby. Your doctor will talk to you about what tests can be done to find out its effects on your baby.




Rubella (German measles)
Written for BabyCenter Malaysia
Approved by the BabyCenter Malaysia Medical Advisory Board

Send to a friend
Printable version
What is rubella?

What can I do if I'm not immune?

What is the risk to my baby if I catch rubella during pregnancy?




What is rubella?


Rubella, or German measles, is an infection which can cause a pinkish-red rash that first appears on the face and later spreads elsewhere on the body. Other symptoms that usually appear before the rash include a mild temperature, conjunctivitis and swollen lymph nodes. The virus runs its course in about three days but up to half of people don't get any symptoms so they won't know that they've had it.

Although rubella is a relatively mild illness, it's very dangerous for a pregnant woman as it can lead to all sorts of problems in her baby. When a baby is affected, it has what is called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which means it could have any of the following conditions:

• cataracts and other eye defects

• deafness

• heart abnormalities

• a smaller head than normal (microcephaly)

• restricted growth during pregnancy

• damage to the brain, liver, lungs and bone marrow

Fortunately in Malaysia, the majority of women in their childbearing years are now immune to the disease, either because they were vaccinated against it as a child or because they have already had the illness. As a result, cases of CRS have fallen dramatically since the early 1980s. It is now very rare.



What can I do if I'm not immune?


Advertisement
Your immunity to rubella can change over time, so it's a good idea to get your immunity checked before you start trying for a baby, even if you've been immune in the past. You can ask your doctor or practice nurse for a blood test.

If you know that you are not immune to rubella, you should if at all possible, be vaccinated before you become pregnant and then wait one month before trying to conceive. This gives your body enough time to kill off the injected virus so you won't be in danger of passing it on to your baby.

If your lack of immunity has been picked up from a blood test in early pregnancy, you'll have to wait until you've had your baby before you can be vaccinated. This can be done before you are discharged if you have your baby in hospital or at your postnatal six-week check.

If by any chance you were vaccinated in the early weeks of pregnancy before you knew you were pregnant, try not to worry. There have been no reports of CRS developing in babies under these circumstances. Your doctor will recommend that you have an ultrasound at 18 to 20 weeks to have a close look at your baby and hopefully, give you some reassurance.



What is the risk to my baby if I catch rubella during pregnancy?


The chances of German measles affecting your baby depend on the stage of pregnancy you are at when you catch the infection. The risks are highest if you catch rubella before you are 11 weeks pregnant (nine out of 10 babies are affected). By 17 weeks, babies are rarely affected, although deafness can affect babies up to 20 weeks.

So, if you have doubts about your immunity, try to avoid contact with anyone who might have German measles, particularly during the first months of your pregnancy.

Unfortunately, if you do catch the disease, there's nothing that can be done to protect your baby. Your doctor will talk to you about what tests can be done to find out its effects on your baby.

http://www.babycenter.com.my/pregnancy/antenatalhealth/physicalhealth/rubella/




German Measles


What is German measles?

German measles is a mild infectious illness caused by the rubella virus, which is why it is sometimes called rubella. There is no connection between German measles and measles, which is caused by a different virus.

What causes German measles?

German measles is caused by a virus, and is spread by fine droplets of moisture, which contain the virus. The droplets are produced when the infected person coughs, sneezes or even talks and another person then inhales these droplets and may become infected.

What are the symptoms of German measles?

Symptoms of German measles can include any of the following:

Slight fever sometimes accompanied by a runny nose.
Swollen glands behind the ears and around the neck.
Loss of appetite.
Sore throat.
Rash that starts on the face and then spreads to the body. This rash usually lasts for about 3 days.
How contagious is German measles?

German measles is contagious and will require an incubation period of 14-21 days. German measles is most contagious before the rash appears and then for about 5 days afterwards.

What are the effects of German measles?

German measles usually causes no long term complications and once you have had German measles you will not get it again. However, the biggest danger is if a pregnant woman develops German measles, as there is a strong possibility that the child will be born with birth defects (e.g. blindness or heart defects).

What treatment is available for German measles?

Children with German measles will not require any medical treatment, as it gets better on its own. You can give your child paracetamol liquid to relieve symptoms of pain and fever, ask your pharmacist for advice. You should however phone and tell your doctor that your child has German measles, he/she will then decide if they need to see the child.

If you are pregnant and you get German measles you should visit your doctor immediately.

How can I prevent catching German measles?

If you are trying to get pregnant or are pregnant, you should consult your doctor to confirm that you are protected against German measles.

An injection for German measles is normally given to babies between 12-15 months, along with a vaccine for mumps and measles (known as M.M.R.). A booster is then given before the child starts school.


http://www.homehealth-uk.com/medical/germanmeasles.htm

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